Infants and children grow fast. Relatively to adults, they need more vitamin D to support their normal growth and immunity.
For dietary supplements, vitamin D is available in two forms, D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol). The two forms differ chemically only in their side-chain structure. Vitamin D2 is manufactured by the UV irradiation of ergosterol in yeast, and vitamin D3 is manufactured by the irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol from lanolin and the chemical conversion of cholesterol.
The two forms have traditionally been regarded as equivalent based on their ability to cure rickets and, indeed, most steps involved in the metabolism and actions of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are identical. Both forms (as well as vitamin D in foods and from skin synthesis) effectively raise serum 25(OH)D levels. Firm conclusions about any different effects of these two forms of vitamin D cannot be drawn. However, it appears that at nutritional doses vitamins D2 and D3 are equivalent, but at high doses vitamin D2 is less potent.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that exclusively and partially breastfed infants receive supplements of 400 IU/day of vitamin D shortly after birth and continue to receive these supplements until they are weaned and consume ≥1,000 mL/day of vitamin D-fortified formula or whole milk. Similarly, all non-breastfed infants ingesting <1,000 mL/day of vitamin D-fortified formula or milk should receive a vitamin D supplement of 400 IU/day. AAP also recommends that older children and adolescents who do not obtain 400 IU/day through vitamin D-fortified milk and foods should take a 400 IU vitamin D supplement daily. However, this latter recommendation (issued November 2008) needs to be reevaluated in light of the Food and Nutrition Board's vitamin D recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 600 IU/day for children and adolescents as issued November 2010, much higher than the previously level for an adequate intake of 200 IU/day.
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