Bacteria, like all living creatures, need to survive. Although they are very small, they can learn how to survive.
Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections. The bacteria survive and continue to multiply causing more harm. Bacteria can do this through several mechanisms.
1. Some bacteria develop the ability to neutralize the antibiotic before it can do harm;
2. Some other bacteria can rapidly pump the antibiotic out,
2. Some other bacteria can change the antibiotic attack site so it cannot affect the function of the bacteria.
3. Many bacteria can mutate their genetic material or by acquiring pieces of DNA that code for the resistance properties from other bacteria.
Antibiotics kill or inhibit the growth of these bacteria which are not resistant to the antibiotics. Sometimes one of the bacteria survives because it has the ability to neutralize or escape the effect of the antibiotic; that one bacterium can then multiply and replace all the bacteria that were killed off. Exposure to antibiotics therefore provides selective pressure, which makes the surviving bacteria more likely to be resistant. In addition, bacteria that were at one time susceptible to an antibiotic can acquire resistance through mutation of their genetic material or by acquiring pieces of DNA that code for the resistance properties from other bacteria. The DNA that codes for resistance can be grouped in a single easily transferable package. This means that bacteria can become resistant to many antimicrobial agents because of the transfer of one piece of DNA.
Bacteria are very smart too! Please discuss with your physician to use antibiotic as needed.
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